What is it?
Interventions which target social and emotional learning (SEL) seek to improve students’ interaction with others and self-management of emotions, rather than focusing directly on the academic or cognitive elements of learning. SEL interventions might focus on the ways in which students work with (and alongside) their peers, teachers, family or community.
Three broad categories of SEL interventions can be identified:
- universal programs which generally take place in the classroom;
- more specialised programs which are targeted at students with particular social or emotional needs; and
- school-level approaches to developing a positive school ethos, which also aim to support greater engagement in learning.
How effective is it?
On average, SEL interventions have an identifiable and valuable impact on attitudes to learning and social relationships in school. They also have an average overall impact of four months' additional progress on achievement.
Although SEL interventions are almost always perceived to improve emotional or attitudinal outcomes, not all interventions are equally effective at raising achievement. Improvements appear more likely when SEL approaches are embedded into routine educational practices and supported by professional development and training for staff. In addition, the implementation of the program and the degree to which teachers are committed to the approach appear to be important.
SEL programs appear to be particularly beneficial for disadvantaged or low-attaining students.
SEL approaches have been found to be effective in primary and secondary schools, and early years settings.
Australian schools appear to be taking on more responsibility for fostering student wellbeing and responding to mental health issues. Nonetheless, there seems to be some confusion amongst educators as to how best to integrate SEL within classrooms. Australasian-based research has found that SEL is an important aspect of students’ school experience and overall wellbeing. However, while SEL interventions have repeatedly been shown to improve student’s social skills and emotional awareness, their potential to facilitate academic gains has not been examined in depth in Australian schools.
One approach repeatedly mentioned in the Australian literature is ‘circle time’, which educators believed to be effective. However, the effectiveness of circle time requires further assessment beyond the use of teachers’ impressions and observations.
How secure is the evidence?
There is extensive international research in this area, including a number of meta-analyses. More research has been undertaken in primary than in secondary schools, and a number of studies have specifically evaluated the impact on students who are low-attaining or disadvantaged.
What are the costs?
Social and emotional interventions targeted at individuals are the most expensive (see also Behaviour interventions). Estimates from the US suggest targeted programs cost about $5,000 per student per year and involve professional counselling services. However, the costs of training school staff and implementing and evaluating the impact are estimated at $1,800 per teacher for professional development and in-school support. Overall, the costs per student are therefore estimated as very low at about $70 per student per year, assuming a school-based, whole class approach.
What should I consider?
How will you link the teaching of social and emotional skills with academic content?
How will you provide appropriate professional development for teachers and other school staff to effectively support SEL approaches?
How will you ensure that you support all staff to consistently apply aspects of SEL more widely in school and embed them in routine school practices?
How will you sensitively target social and emotional approaches to benefit at-risk or vulnerable students?
The impact on achievement of social and emotional aspects of learning is not consistent, so it is important to evaluate the impact of any initiative. Have you considered how you will do this?